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The historical documents referring to Christ's life and work may be divided into three classes: pagan sources, Jewish sources, and Christian sources. We shall study the three in succession.
The non-Christian sources for the historical truth of the Gospels are both few and polluted by hatred and prejudice. A number of reasons have been advanced for this condition of the pagan sources:
It is at least certain that neither Jews nor Gentiles suspected in the least the paramount importance of the religion, the rise of which they witnessed among them. These considerations will account for the rarity and the asperity with which Christian events are mentioned by pagan authors. But though Gentile writers do not give us any information about Christ and the early stages of Christianity which we do not possess in the Gospels, and though their statements are made with unconcealed hatred and contempt, still they unwittingly prove the historical value of the facts related by the Evangelists.
We need not delay over a writing entitled the
Acts of Pilate, which must
have existed in the second century (Justin,
Apol., I, 35), and must have been
used in the pagan schools to warn boys against the belief of Christians (Euseb.,
Hist. Eccl., I, ix; IX, v); nor need we inquire into the question whether
there existed any authentic census tables of Quirinius.
We possess at least the testimony of Tacitus (A.D. 54-119) for the statements that the Founder of the Christian religion, a deadly superstition in the eyes of the Romans, had been put to death by the procurator Pontius Pilate under the reign of Tiberius; that His religion, though suppressed for a time, broke forth again not only throughout Judea where it had originated, but even in Rome, the conflux of all the streams of wickness and shamelessness; furthermore, that Nero had diverted from himself the suspicion of the burning of Rome by charging the Christians with the crime; that these latter were not guilty of arson, though they deserved their fate on account of their universal misanthropy. Tacitus, moreover, describes some of the horrible torments to which Nero subjected the Christians (Ann., XV, xliv). The Roman writer confounds the Christians with the Jews, considering them as a especially abject Jewish sect; how little he investigated the historical truth of even the Jewish records may be inferred from the credulity with which he accepted the absurd legends and calumnies about the origin of he Hebrew people (Hist., V, iii, iv).
Another Roman writer who shows his acquaintance with Christ and the
Christians is Suetonius (A.D. 75-160). It has been noted that Suetonius
considered Christ (Chrestus) as a Roman insurgent who stirred up seditions under
the reign of Claudius (A.D. 41-54):
Judaeos, impulsore Chresto, assidue
tumultuantes (Claudius) Roma expulit (Clau., xxv). In his life of Nero he
regards that emperor as a public benefactor on account of his severe treatment
of the Christians:
Multa sub eo et animadversa severe, et coercita, nec minus
instituta ... afflicti Christiani, genus hominum superstitious novae et
maleficae (Nero, xvi). The Roman writer does not understand that the Jewish
troubles arose from the Jewish antagonism to the Messianic character of Jesus
Christ and to the rights of the Christian Church.
C. Pliny the Younger
Of greater importance is the letter of Pliny the Younger to the Emperor Trajan (about A.D. 61-115), in which the Governor of Bithynia consults his imperial majesty as to how to deal with the Christians living within his jurisdiction. On the one hand, their lives were confessedly innocent; no crime could be proved against them excepting their Christian belief, which appeared to the Roman as an extravagant and perverse superstition. On the other hand, the Christians could not be shaken in their allegiance to Christ, Whom they celebrated as their God in their early morning meetings (Ep., X, 97, 98). Christianity here appears no longer as a religion of criminals, as it does in the texts of Tacitus and Suetonius; Pliny acknowledges the high moral principles of the Christians, admires their constancy in the Faith (pervicacia et inflexibilis obstinatio), which he appears to trace back to their worship of Christ (carmenque Christo, quasi Deo, dicere).
D. Other pagan writers
The remaining pagan witnesses are of less importance: In the second century
Lucian sneered at Christ and the Christians, as he scoffed at the pagan gods. He
alludes to Christ's death on the Cross, to His miracles, to the mutual love
prevailing among the Christians (
Philopseudes, nn. 13, 16;
De Morte Pereg).
There are also alleged allusions to Christ in Numenius (Origen,
IV, 51), to His parables in Galerius, to the earthquake at the Crucifixion in
Phlegon ( Origen,
Contra Cels., II, 14). Before the end of the second century,
the logos alethes of Celsus, as quoted by Origen (Contra Cels., passim),
testifies that at that time the facts related in the Gospels were generally
accepted as historically true. However scanty the pagan sources of the life of
Christ may be, they bear at least testimony to His existence, to His miracles,
His parables, His claim to Divine worship, His death on the Cross, and to the
more striking characteristics of His religion.
Philo, who dies after A.D. 40, is mainly important for the light he throws on certain modes of thought and phraseology found again in some of the Apostles. Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., II, iv) indeed preserves a legend that Philo had met St. Peter in Rome during his mission to the Emperor Caius; moreover, that in his work on the contemplative life he describes the life of the Christian Church in Alexandria founded by St. Mark, rather than that of the Essenes and Therapeutae. But it is hardly probable that Philo had heard enough of Christ and His followers to give an historical foundation to the foregoing legends.
The earlist non-Christian writer who refers Christ is the Jewish historian
Flavius Josephus; born A.D. 37, he was a contemporary of the Apostles, and died
in Rome A.D. 94. Two passages in his
Antiquities which confirm two facts of
the inspired Christian records are not disputed. In the one he reports the
John called Baptist by Herod (Ant., XVIII, v, 2), describing also
John's character and work; in the other (Ant., XX, ix, 1) he disappoves of the
sentence pronounced by the high priest Ananus against
James, brother of Jesus
Who was called Christ. It is antecedently probable that a writer so well
informed as Josephus, must have been well acquainted too with the doctrine and
the history of Jesus Christ. Seeing, also, that he records events of minor
importance in the history of the Jews, it would be surprising if he were to keep
silence about Jesus Christ. Consideration for the priests and Pharisees did not
prevent him from mentioning the judicial murders of John the Baptist and the
Apostle James; his endeavour to find the fulfilment of the Messianic prophecies
in Vespasian did not induce him to pass in silence over several Jewish sects,
though their tenets appear to be inconsistent with the Vespasian claims. One
naturally expects, therefore, a notice about Jesus Christ in Josephus.
Antiquities XVIII, iii, 3, seems to satisfy this expectation:
About this time appeared Jesus, a wise man (if indeed it is right to call Him man; for He was a worker of astonishing deeds, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with joy), and He drew to Himself many Jews (many also of Greeks. This was the Christ.) And when Pilate, at the denunciation of those that are foremost among us, had condemned Him to the cross, those who had first loved Him did not abandon Him (for He appeared to them alive again on the third day, the holy prophets having foretold this and countless other marvels about Him.) The tribe of Christians named after Him did not cease to this day.
A testimony so important as the foregoing could not escape the work of the critics. Their conclusions may be reduced to three headings: those who consider the passage wholly spurious; those who consider it to be wholly authentic; and those who consider it to be a little of each.
Those who regard the passage as spurious
First, there are those who consider the whole passage as spurious. The principal reasons for this view appear to be the following:
But the spuriousness of the disputed Josephan passage does not imply the historian's ignorance of the facts connected with Jesus Christ. Josephus's report of his own juvenile precocity before the Jewish teachers (Vit., 2) reminds one of the story of Christ's stay in the Temple at the age of twelve; the description of his shipwreck on his journey to Rome (Vit., 3) recalls St. Paul's shipwreck as told in the Acts; finally his arbitrary introduction of a deceit practised by the priests of Isis on a Roman lady, after the chapter containing his supposed allusion to Jesus, shows a disposition to explain away the virgin birth of Jesus and to prepare the falsehoods embodied in the later Jewish writings.
Those who regard the passage as authentic, with some spurious additions
A second class of critics do not regard the whole of Josephus's testimony concerning Christ as spurious but they maintain the interpolation of parts included above in parenthesis. The reasons assigned for this opinion may be reduced to the following two:
In Matth., xiii, 55;
Contra Cels., I, 47).
Whatever force these two arguments have is lost by the fact that Josephus did
not write for the Jews but for the Romans; consequently, when he says,
the Christ, he does not necessarily imply that Jesus was the Christ considered
by the Romans as the founder of the Christian religion.
Those who consider it to be completely genuine
The third class of scholars believe that the whole passage concerning Jesus, as it is found today in Josephus, is genuine. The main arguments for the genuineness of the Josephan passage are the following:
Hist. Eccl., I, xi; cf.
Dem. Ev., III, v) Sozomen (Hist. Eccl., I, i), Niceph. (Hist. Eccl., I, 39), Isidore of Pelusium (Ep. IV, 225), St. Jerome (catal.script. eccles. xiii), Ambrose, Cassiodorus, etc., appeal to the testimony of Josephus; there must have been no doubt as to its authenticity at the time of these illustrious writers.
All this does not necessarily imply that Josephus regarded Jesus as the Jewish Messias; but, even if he had been convinced of His Messiahship, it does not follow that he would have become a Christian. A number of posssible subterfuges might have supplied the Jewish historian with apparently sufficient reasons for not embracing Christianity.
C. Other Jewish Sources
The historical character of Jesus Christ is also attested by the hostile
Jewish literature of the subsequent centuries. His birth is ascribed to an
Acta Pilati in Thilo,
Codex apocryph. N.T., I, 526; cf. Justin,
Apol., I, 35), or even an adulterous, union of His parents (Origen,
Cels., I, 28, 32). The father's name is Panthera, a common soldier (Gemara
Schabbath, xii, cf. Eisenmenger,
Entdecktes Judenthum, I,
Horae Hebraicae, II, 696; Buxtorf,
Lex. Chald., Basle, 1639,
Sepher toledhoth yeshua hannaceri, Leyden, 1705). The last
work in its final edition did not appear before the thirteenth century, so that
it could give the Panthera myth in its most advanced form. Rosch is of opinion
that the myth did not begin before the end of the first century.
The later Jewish writings show traces of acquaintance with the murder of the
Holy Innocents (Wagenseil,
Confut. Libr.Toldoth, 15; Eisenmenger op. cit., I,
116; Schottgen, op. cit., II, 667), with the flight into Egypt (cf. Josephus,
Ant. XIII, xiii), with the stay of Jesus in the Temple at the age of twelve
(Schottgen, op. cit., II, 696), with the call of the disciples (
Wagenseil, op. cit., 17; Schottgen, loc. cit., 713), with His miracles (Origen,
Contra Cels, II, 48; Wagenseil, op. cit., 150; Gemara
Sanhedrin fol. 17);
Schabbath, fol. 104b; Wagenseil, op.cit., 6, 7, 17), with His claim to be God
Contra Cels., I, 28; cf. Eisenmenger, op. cit., I, 152; Schottgen,
loc. cit., 699) with His betrayal by Judas and His death (Origen,
II, 9, 45, 68, 70; Buxtorf, op. cit., 1458; Lightfoot,
Hor. Heb., 458, 490,
498; Eisenmenger, loc. cit., 185; Schottgen, loc. cit.,699 700; cf.
vi, vii). Celsus (Origen,
Contra Cels., II, 55) tries to throw doubt on the
Resurrection, while Toldoth (cf. Wagenseil, 19) repeats the Jewish fiction that
the body of Jesus had been stolen from the sepulchre.
Among the Christian sources of the life of Jesus we need hardly mention the so called Agrapha and Apocrypha. For whether the Agrapha contain Logia of Jesus, or refer to incidents in His life, they are either highly uncertain or present only variations of the Gospel story. The chief value of the Apocrypha consists in their showing the infinite superiority of the Inspired Writings by contrasting the coarse and erroneous productions of the human mind with the simple and sublime truths written under the inspiration of the Holy Ghost.
Among the Sacred Books of the New Testament, it is especially the four Gospels and the four great Epistles of St. Paul that are of the highest importance for the construction of the life of Jesus.
The four great Pauline Epistles (Romans, Galatians, and First and Second
Corinthinas) can hardly be overestimated by the student of Christ's life; they
have at times been called the
fifth gospel; their authenticity has never been
assailed by serious critics; their testimony is also earlier than that of the
Gospels, at least most of the Gospels; it is the more valuable because it is
incidental and undesigned; it is the testimony of a highly intellectual and
cultured writer, who had been the greatest enemy of Jesus, who writes within
twenty-five years of the events which he relates. At the same time, these four
great Epistles bear witness to all the most important facts in the life of
Christ: His Davidic dscent, His poverty, His Messiahship, His moral teaching,
His preaching of the kingdom of God, His calling of the apostles, His miraculous
power, His claims to be God, His betrayal, His institution of the Holy Eucharist,
His passion, crucifixion, burial, resurrection, His repeated appearances (Romans
1:3-4; 5:11; 8:2-3; 8:32; 9:5; 15:8; Galatians 2:17; 3:13; 4:4; 5:21; First
Corinthians 6:9; 13:4; etc.). However important the four great Epistles may be,
the gospels are still more so. Not that any one of them offers a complete
biography of Jesus, but they account for the origin of Christianity by the life
of its Founder. Questions like the authenticity of the Gospels, the relation
between the Synoptic Gospels, and the Fourth, the Synoptic problem, must be
studied in the articles referring to these respective subjects.