St. Eulalia of Barcelona
A Spanish martyr in the persecution of Diocletian (12 February, 304), patron of the cathedral and city of Barcelona, also of sailors. The Acts of her life and martyrdom were copied early in the twelfth century, and with elegant conciseness, by the learned ecclesiastic Renallus Grammaticus (Bol. acad. hist., Madrid, 1902, XLI, 253-255). Their chief historical source is a Latin hymn of the middle of the seventh century by Quiricus, Bishop of Barcelona, friend and correspondent of St. Ildephonsus of Toledo and of Tajo, Bishop of Saragossa. This hymn, identical with that of Prudentius (Peridstephanon, III) for the feast of St. Eulalia of Merida (10 December, 304), was preserved in the Visigothic Church and has reached us through the Mozarabic Liturgy.
There is no reason to doubt the existence of two distinct saints of this name,
despite the over-hasty and hypercritical doubts of some. The aforesaid Quiricus
of Barcelona and Oroncius of Merida were present at the tenth council of Toledo
(656). The latter had already founded (651) a convent of nuns close by the
basilica of the celebrated martyr of his episcopal city, had written a rule for
its guidance, and given it for abbess the noble lady Eugenia. Quiricus now did
as much for the basilica and sepulchre of the martyr of Barcelona, close to whom
he wished to be buried, as we read in the last lines of the hymn. The
inscriptions on many Visigothic altars show that they contained relics of St.
Eulalia; except in the context, however, they do not distinguish between the
martyr of Barcelona and the one of Merida. On an altar in the village of Morera,
Province of Badajoz, we find enumerated consecutively Sts. Fructuosus and
Augurius (Tarragona), St. Eulalia (Barcelona), St. Baudillius (Nimes, and St.
Paulus (Narbonne). The Visigothic archeology of Eastern Spain has been hitherto
poor in hagiological remains; nevertheless, a trans-Pyrenean inscription found
at Montady near Béziers mentions a basilica dedicated to the martyrs Sts.
Vincentius, Iñes, and Eulalia (of Barcelona). Until 23 November, 874, the body
of the Barcelona bartyr reposed outside the walls of the city in the church of
Santa Maria del Mar. On that date both the body and the tomb were transferred to
his cathedral by Bishop Frodoinus. In memory of this act hehe set up an
inscription yet preserved in the Muséo Provincial of Barcelona (no. 864); see
also volume XX of Florez,
España Sagrada, for a reproduction of the same. Not
long before this the martyr, St. Eulogius, having occasion to defend the martyrs
of Cordova for their spontaneous confession of the Christian Faith before the
Muslim magistrates, quoted the example of St. Eulalia of Barcelona, and referred
to the ancients Acts of her martyrdom. Her distinct personality is also
confirmed by the existence of an ancient church and monastery in Cordova that
bear the name of the Barcelona martyr; this important evidence is borne out by
the Mozarabic calendars examined by the learned Dom Ferotin (below).
Acta SS.February 12, II, 576-80; FLOREZ, España Sagrada, XIII, XXIX; HÜBNER, Inscriptiones Hispaniae Christianae (Berlin, 1900), nos. 57, 80, 89, 178, 334, 374, 519; FEROTIN, Liber Ordinum in Mon. Eccl. Liturgica (Paris, 1904), V, 449-505, 767; FITA, Boletin de la Real Academia de la Historia (Madrid), 1900-03, XXV, 53-55; XXXVII, 347; XLI, 253; XLIII, 50, 250, 449; P.L., LX, 643; LXXXIX, 1033, 1100; Anonymi Libellus de vitis et miraculis patrum Emeritensium Paulo diacono Emeritensi vulgo inscriptus etc., ed. DE SMEDT in Hagiogr. Bolland. (Brussels, 1884); GAMS, Kircheng. Spaniens (1862), I, 306.
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