St. Hippolytus of Rome
Martyr, presbyter and antipope; date of birth unknown; d. about 236. Until
the publication in 1851 of the recently discovered
Philosophumena, it was
impossible to obtain any definite authentic facts concerning Hippolytus of Rome
and his life from the conflicting statements about him, as follows:
- Eusebius says that he was bishop of a church somewhere and enumerates several of his writings (Hist. eccl., VI, xx, 22).
- St. Jerome likewise describes him as the bishop of an unknown see, gives a longer list of his writings, and says of one of his HomilieEine Homilie (von griech.„ὁμιλεῖν”, „vertraut miteinander reden”) ist eine Art von Predigt. Während eine Predigt die Großtaten Gottes preist (lat. „praedicare”, „preisen”) und Menschen für den Glauben begeistern will, hat die Homilie lehrhaften Charakter. s that he delivered it in the presence of Origen, to whom he made direct reference (De viris illustribus, cap. 1xi).
- The Chronography of 354, in the list of popes, mentions Bishop Pontianus and
the presbyter Hippolytus as being banished to the island of Sardinia in the year
235; the Roman Calendar in the same collection records under 13 August the feast
of Hippolytus on the Via Tiburtina and Pontianus in the catacomb of Callistus
(ed. Mommsen in
Mon. Germ. Hist.: auctores antiquissimi, IX, 72, 74).
- According to the inscription over the grave of Hippolytus composed by Pope
Damasus, he was a follower of the Novatian schism while a presbyter, but before
his death exhorted his followers to become reconciled with the Catholic Church
Damasi epigrammata, Leipzig, 1895, 42, n.37).
- Prudentius wrote a hymn on the martyr Hippolytus (
Peristephanon, hymn XI, in P.L., LX, 530 sqq.), in which he places the scene of the martyrdom at Ostia or Porto, and describes Hippolytus as being torn to pieces by wild horses, evidently a reminiscence of the ancient Hippolytus, son of Theseus.
- Later Greek authors (e. g. Georgius Syncellus., ed. Bonn, 1829, 674 sqq.;
Hist. eccl., IV, xxxi) do not give much more information than Eusebius and Jerome; some of them call him Bishop of Rome, others Bishop of Porto. According to Photius (Bibliotheca, codex 121), he was a disciple of St. Irenaeus. Oriental writers, as well as Pope Gelasius, place the See of Hippolytus at Bostra, the chief city of the Arabs.
- Several later legends of martyrs speak of Hippolytus in various connections.
That of St. Laurence refers to him as the officer appointed to guard the blessed
deacon, who was converted, together with his entire household, and killed by
wild horses (Acta SS., August, III, 13-14; Surius,
De probatis Sanctorum historiis, IV, Cologne, 1573, 581 sqq.). A legend of Porto identifies him with the martyr Nonnus and gives an account of his martyrdom with others of the same city (Acta SS., August, IV, 506; P.G., X, 545-48).
- A monument of importance is the large fragment of a marble statue of the
saint discovered in 1551 which underwent restoration (the upper part of the body
and the head being new), and is now preserved in the Lateran museum; the paschal
cycle computed by Hippolytus and a list of his writings are engraved on the
sides of the chair on which the figure of Hippolytus is seated; the monument
dates from the third century (Kraus,
Realencyklopädie der christlichen Altertümer, 661 sqq.).
- The topographies of the graves of the Roman martyrs place the grave of
Hippolytus in the cemetery on the Via Tiburtina named after him, mention the
basilica erected there, and give some legendary details concerning him. (De
Roma sotterranea, I, 178-79); the burial vault of the sainted confessor was unearthed by De Rossi (Bullettino di archeologia cristiana, 1882, 9-76).
The discovery of the
Philosophumean has now made it possible to clear up
the most important period of the life of St. Hippolytus through his own evidence,
and at the same time to test and correct the conflicting accounts contained in
the old authorities. We proceed on the assumption that Hippolytus was really the
author of the aforesaid work, an hypothesis almost universally accepted by
Hippolytus was a presbyter of the Church of Rome at the beginning of the
third century. There is no difficulty in admitting that he could have been a
disciple of St Irenaeus either in Rome or Lyons. It is equally possible that
Origen heard a homily by Hippolytus when he went to Rome about the year 212. In
the reigh of Pope Zephyrinus (198-217) he came into conflict with that pontiff
and with the majority of the Church of Rome, primarily on account of the
christological opinions which for some time had been causing controversies in
Rome. Hippolytus had combated the heresy of Theodotion and the Alogi; in like
fashion he opposed the false doctrines of Noetus, of Epigonus, of Cleomenes, and
of Sabellius, who emphasized the unity of God too one-sidedly (Monarchians) and
saw in the concepts of the Father and the Son merely manifestations (modi) of
the Divine Nature (Modalism, Sabellianism). Hippolytus, on the contrary, stood
uncompromisingly for a real difference between the Son (Logos) and the Father,
but so as to represent the Former as a Divine Person almost completely separate
from God (Ditheism) and at the same time altogether subordinate to the Father
(Subordinationism). As the heresy in the doctrine of the Modalists was not at
first clearly apparent, Pope Zephyrinus declined to give a decision. For this
Hippolytus gravely censured him, representing him as an incompetent man,
unworthy to rule the Church of Rome and as a tool in the hands of the ambitious
and intriguing deacon Callistus, whose early life is maliciously depicted
(Philosophumena, IX, xi-xii). Consequently when Callistus was elected pope
(217-218) on the death of Zephyrinus, Hippolytus immediately left the communion
of the Roman Church and had himself elected antipope by his small band of
followers. These he calls the Catholic Church and himself successor to the
Apostles, terming the great majority of Roman Christians the School of Callistus.
He accuses Callistus of having fallen first into the heresy of Theodotus, then
into that of Sabellius; also of having through avarice degraded ecclesiastical,
and especially the penitential, discipline to a disgraceful laxity. These
reproaches were altogether unjustified. Hippolytus himself advocated an
excessive rigorism. He continued in opposition as antipope throughout the reigns
of the two immediate successors of Callistus, Urban (222 or 223 to 230) and
Pontius (230-35), and during this period, probably during the pontificate of
Pontianus, he wrote the
Philosophumena. He was banished to the unhealthful
island (insula nociva) of Sardinia at the same time as Pontianus; and shortly
before this, or soon afterward, he became reconciled with the legitimate bishop
and the Church of Rome. For, after both exiles had died on the island of
Sardinia, their mortal remains were brought back to Rome on the same day, 13
August (either 236 or one of the following years), and solemnly interred,
Pontianus in the papal vault in the catacomb of Callistus and Hippolytus in a
spot on the Via Tiburtina. Both were equally revered as martyrs by the Roman
Church: certain proof that Hippolytus had made his peace with that Church before
his death. With his death the schism must have come to a speedy end, which
accounts for its identification with the Novatian schism at the end of the
fourth century, as we learn from the inscription by Damasus.
The fact that Hippolytus was a schismatic Bishop of Rome and yet was held in high honour afterwards both as martyr and theologian, explains why as early as the fourth century nothing was known as to his see, for he was not on the list of the Roman bishops. The theory championed by Lightfoot (see below), that he was actually Bishop of Porto but with his official residence in Rome, is untenable.
This statement, made by a few authorities, results from a confusion with a
martyr of Porto, due perhaps to a legendary account of his martyrdom. Moreover
De Rossi's hypothesis, based on the inscription by Damasus, that Hippolytus
returned from exile, and subsequently became an adherent of Novatian, his
reconciliation with the Roman Church not being effected until just before his
martyrdom under the Emperor Valerian (253-60), is incompatible with the
supposition that he is the author of the
Philosophumena. The feast of St.
Hippolytus is kept on 13 August, a date assigned in accordance with the legend
of St. Laurence; that of Hippolytus of Porto is celebrated on 22 August.
Hippolytus was the most important theologian and the most prolific religious
writer of the Roman Church in the pre-Constantinian era. Nevertheless the fate
of his copious literary remains has been unfortunate. Most of his works have
been lost or are known only through scattered fragments, while much has survived
only in old translations into Oriental and Slavic languages; other writings are
freely interpolated. The fact that the author wrote in Greek made it inevitable
that later, when that language was no longer understood in Rome, the Romans lost
interest in his writings, while in the East they were read long after and made
the author famous. His works deal with several branches of theology, as appears
from the aforementioned list on the statue, from Eusebius, St. Jerome, and from
Oriental authors. His exegetical treatises were numerous: he wrote commentaries
on several books of the Old and New Testaments. Most of these are extant only in
fragments. The commentary on the Canticle of Canticles, however, has probably
been preserved in its entirety (
Werke des Hippolytus, ed. Bonwetsch, 1897, 343
sqq.); likewise the fullest extant commentary on the Book of Daniel in 4 books
(ibid., 2 sqq.). Eight of his works, known by their titles, dealt with dogmatic
and apologetic subjects, but only one has come down entire in the original Greek.
This is the work on Christ and Antichrist (
De Antichristo, ed. Achelis, op.
cit., I, II, 1 sqq.); fragments of a few others have been preserved. Of his
polemics against heretics the most important is the
original title of which is kata pason aireseon elegchos (A Refutation of All
Heresies). The first book had long been known; books IV to X, which had been
discovered a short time previously, were published in 1851. But the first
chapters of the fourth and the whole of the second and third books are still
missing. The first four books treat of the Hellenic philosophers; books V to IX
are taken up with the exposition and refutation of Christian heresies, and the
last book contains a recapitulation. The work is one of the most important
sources for the history of the heresies which disturbed the early Church. Origen
is cited in some manuscripts as the author of the first book. Photius attributes
it to the Roman author Caius (q.v.), while by others it has been ascribed also
to Tertullian and Novatian. But most modern scholars hold for weighty reasons
that Hippolytus is undoubtedly its author. A shorter treatise agains heresies
(Syntagma), and written by Hippolytus at an earlier date, may be restored in
outline from later adaptations (Libellus adversus omnes haereses; Epiphanius,
De haeresibus). He wrote a third antiheretical work
which was universal in character, called the
Small Labyrinth. Besides these
Hippolytus wrote special monographs against Marcion, the Montanists, the Alogi,
and Caius. Of these writings only a few fragments are extant. Hippolytus also
produced an Easter cycle, as well as a chronicle of the world which was made use
of by later chroniclers. And finally St. Jerome mentions a work by him on Church
laws. Three treatises on canon law have been preserved under the name of
Constitutiones per Hippolytum (which are parallel with the
eighth book of the Apostolic Constitutions), the Egyptian Church Ordinance, in
Coptic, and the
Canones Hippolyti. Of these works the first two are spurious
beyond doubt, and the last, the authenticity of which was upheld even by Achelis
(Die Canones Hippolyti, Leipzig, 1891), belongs in all probability to the fifth
or sixth century.
The works of Hippolytus have been edited by Fabricius,
S. Hippolyti episcopi
et mart. opera (2 vols., Hamburg, 1716-18); by Gallandi in
patrum, II, 1766; in Migne, P.G., X; by Lagarde (Leipzig and London, 1858); and
by Bonwetsch and Achelis,
Hippolytus I, pts. I and II (Leipzig, 1897), in
gr. chr. Schriftsteller, a series published by the Berlin Academy. The
Philosophumena was edited by Miller, as the work of Origen (Oxford, 1851); by
Duncker and Schneidewin as the work of Hippolytus (Göttingen, 1859), and in P.G.,
Canones Hippolyti were edited by Haneberg (Munich, 1870); by Achelis,
Die ältesten Quellen des orientalischen Kirchenrechts:, I, in
Untersuchungen, VI (Leipzig, 1891), 4.
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