(1) A Roman martyr Romanus is mentioned in the
Liber Pontificalis (ed. Duchesne, I, 155) with three other ecclesiastics as
companions in the martyrdom of St. Lawrence (10 August, 258). There is no reason
to doubt that this mention rests upon a genuine ancient tradition. Like St.
Lawrence Romanus was buried in the Catacomb of the Cyriaca on the Via Tiburtina.
The grave of St. Romanus is explicitly mentioned in the Itineraries of the
seventh century (De Rossi,
Roma sotterranea, I, 178-9). In the purely
legendary Acts of St. Lawrence, the ostiary Romanus is transformed into a
soldier, and an account in accordance with this statement was inserted in the
historical martyrologies and in the present Roman Martyrology, which latter
places his feast on 9 August (cf. Duchfourcq,
Les Gesta Martyrum romains, I,
(2) In 303 or 304, at the beginning of the Diocletian
persecution, a deacon called Romanus of Caesarea in Palestine suffered martyrdom
at Antioch. Upon the proclamation of Diocletian's edict he strengthened the
Christians of Antioch and openly exhorted the weaker brethren, who were willing
to offer heathen sacrifices, not to waver in the Faith. He was taken prisoner,
was condemned to death by fire, and was bound to the stake; however, as the
Emperor Galerius was then in Antioch, Romanus was brought before him. At the
emperor's command the tongue of the courageous confessor was cut out. Tortured
in various ways in prison he was finally strangled. Eusebius speaks of his
De martyribus Palestin., c. ii. Prudentius (
Peristephanon, X in
P.L., LX, 444 sqq.) relates other details and gives Romanus a companion in
martyrdom, a Christian by name Barulas. On this account several historians,
among them Baronius, consider that there were two martyrs named Romanus at
Antioch, though more likely there was but the one whom Eusebius mentions.
Prudentius has introduced legendary features into his account, and his
connection of the martyrdom of Barulas with that of Romanus is probably
arbitrary. The feast of St. Romanus is observed on 18 November [cf. Allard,
Histoire des persécutions, IV, 173 sq.; Quentin,
Les martyrologes historiques
(Paris, 1908), 183-5].
Martyrologium Hieronymianum mentions
martyrs of this name at several dates, chiefly in large companies of Christians
who suffered martyrdom. No further particulars are known of any of them.
(4) A holy priest named Romanus laboured in the district
of Blaye, in the present French department of the Gironde, at the end of the
fourth century. Gregory of Tours gives an account of him (
confessorum, c. xlv), and relates that St. Martin of Tours made ready the grave
of the dead Romanus. An old life of St. Romanus was published in the
Bollandiana, V (1866), 178 sqq. The feast of the saint is observed on 24
(5) St. Romanus, Abbot of Condat, now St. Claude in the
French Jura, b. about 400; d. in 463 or 464. When thirty-five years old he went
into the lonely region of Condat to live as a hermit, where after a while his
younger brother Lupicinus followed him. A large number of scholars, among whom
was St. Eugendus, placed themselves under the direction of the two holy brothers
who founded several monasteries: Condat (now Saint-Claude), Lauconne (later
Saint-Lupicin, as Lupicinus was buried there), La Balme (later
Saint-Romain-de-Roche), where St. Romanus was buried, and Romainmôtier (Romanum
monasterium) in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. Romanus was ordained priest
by St. Hilary of Arles in 444, and with Lupicinus he directed these monasteries
until his death. His feast is observed on 28 February. Two lives of him are in
existence: one by Gregory of Tours in the
Liber vitae patrum (Mon. Germ. Hist.:
Script. Merov., I, 663), and an anonymous
Vita Sanctorum Romani, Lupicini,
Eugendi [ibid., III, 131 sqq.; cf. Benoît,
Histoire de St-Claude, I (Paris,
Recherches sur les origines des évêchés de Genève, Lausanne, et
Sion (Fribourg, 1906), 210 sqq.].
(6) St. Romanus, monk in a monastery near Subiaco,
Italy, at the beginning of the sixth century. He aided St. Benedict when the
latter withdrew into a solitary place and regularly brought Benedict bread to
support life (St. Gregory the Great,
Dialogi, II, i). Romanus later (fom 523)
represented St. Benedict at Subiaco, and is said to have afterwards gone to Gaul
and to have founded a small monastery at Dryes-Fontrouge, where he died about
550 and was venerated as a saint. His feast is observed on 22 May. A St. Romanus,
who is venerated as Bishop of Auxerre on 8 October, is probably identical with
this Abbot Romanus whose relics were subsequently translated to Auxerre [cf.
Acta SS., May, V, 153 sqq.; October, III, 396 sqq.; Adlhoch in
Mitteilungen aus dem Benedictiner- und Cisterzienerorden (1907), 267 sqq., 501
sqq.; (1908), 103 sqq., 327 sqq., 587 sqq.; Leclerc,
Vie de St Romain,
éducateur de St Bénoit (Paris, 1893)].
(7) St. Romanus, Bishop of Rouen, date of birth unknown;
d. about 640. His feast is observed on 23 October. The legend of this saint has
little historical value (Acta SS., October, X, 91 sqq.), and there is but little
authentic information concerning him [cf.
Analecta Bollandiana (1904), 337
(8) St. Romanus,
the Singer, the most important
representative of rhythmic poetry in the Greek Church. According to the Greek
Menaia he was born in Syria, was ordained deacon at Berytus, then went to
Constantinople, where he became one of the clergy at the Blachernen church. The
era in which he lived is not certainly ascertained; most probably, however, his
residence in Constantinople was from about 515 to 556. His feast is observed on
1 October. Several of his poems were edited by Pitra,
Analecta sacra, I (Paris,
1876), 1-241 [cf. Maas,
Die Chronologie der Hymnen des Romanus in
Zeitschrift (1906), 1-44; Bardenhewer,
Patrologie (3rd ed.), 486].
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