Pope Bl. Urban V
Guillaume de Grimoard, born at Grisac in Languedoc, 1310; died at Avignon, 19
December, 1370. Born of a knightly family, he was educated at Montpellier and
Toulouse, and became a Benedictine monk at the little priory of Chirac near his
home. A Bull of 1363 informs us that he was professed at the great Abbey of St.
Victor at Marseilles, where he imbibed his characteristic love for the Order of
St. Benedict; even as pope he wore its habit. He was ordained at Chirac, and
after a further course of theology and canon law at the universities of Toulouse,
Montpellier, Paris, and Avignon, he received the doctorate in 1342. He was one
of the greatest canonists of his day; was professor of canon law at Montpellier,
and also taught at Toulouse, Paris, and Avignon; he acted successively as
vicar-general of the Dioceses of Clermont and Uzès, was at an unknown date
(before 1342) affiliated to Cluny, became prior of Notre-Dame du Pré (a priory
dependent on St. Germain d'Auxerre), and in 1352 was named abbot of that famous
house by Clement VI. With this date begins his diplomatic career. His first
mission was to Giovanni Visconti, Archbishop and despot of Milan, and this he
carried out successfully; in 1354 and 1360 he was employed on the affairs of the
Holy See in Italy; in 1361 he was appointed by Innocent VI to the Abbacy of St.
Victor at Marseilles, but in 1362 was once more dispatched to Italy, this time
on an embassy to Joanna of Naples. It was while engaged on this business that
the abbot heard of his election to the papacy. Innocent VI had died on 12 Sept.
The choice of one who was not a cardinal was due to jealousies within the Sacred
College, which made the election of any one of its members almost impossible.
Guillaume de Grimoard was chosen for his virtue and learning, and for his skill
in practical affairs of government and diplomacy. He arrived at Marseilles on 28
Oct., entered Avignon three days later, and was consecrated on 6 November,
taking the name of Urban because, as he said,
all the popes who had borne the
name had been saints. The general satisfaction which this election aroused was
voiced by Petrarch, who wrote to the pope,
It is God alone who has chosen you.
On 20 November King John of France visited Avignon; his main purpose was to obtain the hand of Joanna of Naples, ward of the Holy See, for his son Philip, Duke of Touraine. In a letter of 7 November Urban had already approved her project of marriage with King James of Majorca, a king without a kingdom; by so doing the pope safeguarded his own independence at Avignon, which would have been gravely imperilled had the marriage of Joanna, who was also Countess of Provence, united to the Crown of France the country surrounding the little papal principality. The letter written by Urban to Joanna on 29 Nov., urging the marriage with Philip, was probably meant rather to appease the French king than to persuade the recipient. The betrothal of the Queen of Naples to James of Majorca was signed on 14 Dec. The enormous ransom of 3,000,000 gold crowns, due to Edward III of England from John of France by the treaty of Bretigny, was still in great part unpaid, and John now sought permission to levy a tithe on the revenues of the French clergy. Urban refused this request as well as another for the nomination of four cardinals chosen by the king. John also desired to intervene between the pope and Barnabò Visconti, tyrant of Milan. He was again refused, and when Barnabò failed to appear within the three months allowed by his citation, the pope excommunicated him (3 March, 1363). In April of the same year Visconti was defeated before Bologna. Peace was concluded in March, 1364; Barnabò restored the castles seized by him, while Urban withdrew the excommunication and undertook to pay half a million gold florins.
The Benedictine pope was a lover of peace, and much of his diplomacy was
directed to the pacification of Italy and France. Both countries were overrun by
mercenary bands known as the
Free Companies, and the pope made many efforts to
secure their dispersal or departure. His excommunication was disregarded and the
companies refused to join the distant King of Hungary in his battles with the
Turks although the Emperor Charles IV, who came to Avignon in May, 1365,
guaranteed the expenses of their journey and offered them the revenues of his
kingdom of Bohemia for three years. War now broke out between Pedro the Cruel of
Navarre and his brother Henry of Trastamare. Pedro was excommunicated for his
cruelties and persecutions of the clergy, and Bertrand Duguesclin, the victor of
Cocherel, led the companies into Navarre; yet they visited Avignon on their way
and wrung blackmail from the pope. The Spanish war was quickly ended, and Urban
returned to his fomer plan of employing the companies against the Turk. The
Count of Savoy was to have led them to the assistance of the King of Cyprus and
the Eastern Empire, but this scheme too was a failure. Urban's efforts were
equally fruitless in Italy, where the whole land was overrun with bands led by
such famous condottieri as the German Count of Landau and the Englishman Sir
John Hawkwood. In 1365, after the failure of a scheme to unite Florence, Pisa,
and the Italian communes against them, the pope commissioned Albornoz to
persuade these companies to join the King of Hungary. In 1366 he solemnly
excommunicated them, forbade their employment, and called on the emperor and all
the powers of Christendom to unite for their extirpation. All was in vain, for
though a league of Italian cities was formed in September of that year, it was
disolved about fifteen months later owing to Florentine jealousy of the emperor.
Rome had suffered terribly through the absence of her pontiffs, and it became apparent to Urban that if he remained at Avignon the work of the warlike Cardinal Albornoz in restoring to the papacy the States of the Church would be undone. On 14 September, 1366, he informed the emperor of his determination to return to Rome. All men rejoiced at the announcement except the French; the king understood that the departure from Avignon would mean a diminution of French influence at the Curia. The French cardinals were in despair at the prospect of leaving France, and even threatened to desert the pope. On 30 April, 1367, Urban left Avignon; on 19 May he sailed from Marseilles, and after a long coasting voyage he reached Corneto, where he was met by Albornoz. On 4 June the Romans brought the keys of Sant' Angelo in sign of welcome, and the Gesuati carrying their branches in their hands and headed by their founder, Blessed John Colombini, preceded the pope. Five days later he entered Viterbo, where he dwelt in the citadel. The disturbed state of Italy made it impossible for Urban to set out to Rome until he had gathered a considerable army, so it was not till 16 Oct. that he entered the city at the head of an imposing cavalcade, under the escort of the Count of Savoy, the Marquess of Ferrara, and other princes.
The return of the pope to Rome appeared to the contemporary world both as a
great event and as a religious action. The pope now set to work to improve the
material and moral condition of his capital. The basilicas and papal palaces
were restored and decorated, and the Papal treasure, which had been preserved at
Assisi since the days of Boniface VIII, was distributed to the city churches.
The unemployed were put to work in the neglected gardens of the Vatican, and
corn was distributed in seasons of scarcity; at the same time the discipline of
the clergy was restored, and the frequentation of the sacraments encouraged. One
of Urban's first acts was to change the Roman constitution, but it may be
the sacrifice offered to the Pontiff as the reward of his
return was the liberty of the people (Gregorovius).
On 17 October, 1368, the emperor joined the pope at Viterbo. Before leaving
Germany he had confirmed all the rights of the Church, and Urban hoped for his
help against the Visconti, but Charles allowed himself to be bribed. On 21 Oct.
the pope and emperor entered Rome together, the latter humbly leading the
pontiff's mule. On 1 Nov. Charles acted as deacon at the Mass at which Urban
crowned the empress. For more than a century pope and emperor had not appeared
thus in amity. A year later the Emperor of the East, John V Palaeologus, came to
Rome seeking assistance against the infidel; he abjured the schism and was
received by Urban on the steps of St. Peter's. These emperors both of West and
East were but shadows of their great predecessors, and their visits, triumphs as
they might appear, were but little gain to Urban V. He felt that his position in
Italy was insecure. The death of Albornoz (24 Aug., 1367), who had made his
return to Italy possible, had been a great loss. The restlessness of the towns
was exemplified by the revolt of Perugia, which had to be crushed by force; any
chance storm might undo the work of the great legate. At heart, too, the pope
had all a Frenchman's love for his country, and his French entourage urged his
return to Avignon. In vain were the remonstrances of the envoys of Rome, which
greater quiet and order, an influx of wealth, a revival of
importance from his sojourn; in vain were the admonitions of St. Bridget, who
came from Rome to Montefiascone to warn him that if he returned to Avignon he
would shortly die. War had broken out again between France and England, and the
desire to bring about peace strengthened the pope's determination. On 5 Sept.,
sad, suffering and deeply moved, Urban embarked at Corneto. In a Bull of
26 June he had told the Romans that his departure was motived by his desire to
be useful to the Universal Church and to the country to which he was going. It
may be, too, that the pope saw that the next conclave would be free at Avignon
but not in Italy. Charles V joyfully sent a fleet of richly adorned galleys to
Corneto; the pope did not long survive his return (24 Sept.) to Avignon. His
body was buried in Notre-Dame des Doms at Avignon but was removed two years
later, in accordance with his own wish, to the Abbey Church of St. Victor at
Marseilles. Miracles multiplied around his tomb. His canonization was demanded
by King Waldemar of Denmark and promised by Gregory XI as early as 1375, but did
not take place owing to the disorders of the time. His cultus was approved by
Pius IX in 1870.
Urban V was a man whose motives cannot be called in question: his policy aimed at Eurpoean peace; shortly before his death he had given orders that preparations should be made to enable him personally to visit and reconcile Edward III and Charles V. He had shown great zeal for the Crusade. On 29 March, 1363, Pierre de Lusignan, King of Cyprus and titular King of Jerusalem, appeared at Avignon to appeal for assistance against the Turks, and on 31 March (Good Friday) Urban preached the Crusade and gave the cross to the Kings of France, Denmark, and Cyprus; the chivalrous King John, who was to have been chief commander, died a quasi-prisoner at London in 1364, and though the King of Cyprus captured Alexandria (11 Oct., 1365), he was unable to hold the city. The crusading spirit was dead in Europe. In an age of corruption and simony Urban stood for purity and disinterestedness in church life: he did much for ecclesiastical discipline and caused many provincial councils to be held; he refused to bestow place or money on his relatives, and even caused his own father to refund a pension bestowed on him by the French king. His brother, whom he prompted to the cardinalate, was acknowledged by all to be a man most worthy of the dignity. The pope's private life was that of a monk, and he was always accessible to those who sought his aid.
But Urban was a patriotic Frenchman, a defect in the universal father of Christendom. He estranged the English king by the help given to his rival, and aroused hostility in Italy by the favour shown to men of his own race whom he made his representatives in the States of the Church. He was a great patron of learning, founded universities at Cracow (by a Bull of 1364) and at Vienna (by a Bull of 1365), and caused the emperor to create the University of Orange; he revised the statutes of the University of Orléans; and gave great assistance to the universities of Avignon and Toulouse. At Bologna he supported the great college founded by Albornoz and paid the expenses of many poor students whom he sent thither. He also founded a studium at Trets (later removed to Manosque), but his greatest foundations were at Montpellier. His buildings and restorations were considerable, especially at Avignon, Rome, and Montpellier. He approved the orders of Brigittines and Gesuati, and canonized his godfather, St. Elzéar of Sabran.
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