St. Ivo of Chartres
One of the most notable bishops of France at the time of the Investiture
struggles and the most important canonist before Gratian in the Occident, born
of a noble family about 1040; died in 1116. From the neighbourhood of Beauvais,
his native country, he went for his studies first to Paris and thence to the
Abbey of Bee in Normandy, at the same time as Anselm of Canterbury, to attend
the lectures given by Lanfranc. About 1080 he became, at the desire of his
bishop, prior of the canons of St-Quentin at Beauvais. He was then one of the
best teachers in France, and so prepared himself to infuse a new life into the
celebrated schools of Chartres, of which city he was appointed bishop in 1090,
his predecessor, Geoffroy, having been deposed for simony. His episcopal
government, at first opposed by the tenants of Geoffroy, ranged over a period of
twenty-five years. No man, perhaps, is better portrayed in his writing than is
Ivo in his letters and sermons; in both he appears as a man always faithful to
his duties, high-minded, full of zeal and piety, sound in his judgments, a keen
jurist, straight-forward, mindful of others' rights, devoted to the papacy and
to his country, at the same time openly disapproving of what he considered wrong.
This explains why he has been sometimes quoted as a patron of Gallican Liberties
and looked upon by Flaccus Illyricus as one of the
witnesses to the truth in
Catalogus. Very often Ivo was consulted on theological, liturgical,
political, and especially canonical matters. Of his life little more is known
than may be gathered from his letters. As bishop he strongly opposed Philip the
First, who wished to desert Bertha, his legitimate wife, and marry Bertrade of
Anjou (1092); his opposition gained him a prison cell. In the Investiture
struggle then raging in France, and especially in Germany, Ivo represented the
moderate party. Though he died too early to witness the final triumph of his
ideas with the Concordat of Worms (1122), his endeavours and his doctrines may
be said to have paved the way for an agreement satisfactory to both sides. His
views on the subject are fully expressed in several of his letters, especially
those of the years 1099, 1106, and 1111 (Epistolae, lx, clxxxix, ccxxxii,
ccxxxvi, ccxxxvii, etc.); these letters are still of interest as to the question
of the relationship between Church and State, the efficacy of sacraments
administered by heretics, the sin of simony, etc.
The printed works of Ivo of Chartres may be arranged into three categories; canonical writings, letters, and sermons.
For the canonical works cf. CANONS, COLLECTIONS OF ANCIENT, sub-title
Collection of Yvo of Chartres. Suffice it to mention here the
seventeen books and the
Panormia in eight books, the latter being undoubtedly
the work of Ivo himself, with material taken from the former. Both of these were
composed before 1096, but the
Panormia enjoyed a far greater success than the
Decretum; we immediately find it at Durham and elsewhere in England, at
Naumburg in Germany, etc. One of the improvements of this collection on the
works of Burchard of Worms (d. 1025) consists in this: that Ivo gives a far
greater number of canons, adding to those of Burchard canons taken from Italian
sources. As may be easily seen, theology and canon law are not yet precisely
marked off from one another - a defect which holds also for previous
collections; the chapters on the Trinity, Incarnation, and especially the
sacraments are worth seeing in this connection. But the most important feature
of Ivo's work is perhaps his preface,
Prologus, which give new rules for
solving the old problem of the discrepancies occurring in the texts of the
Fathers and the councils.
The letters of Ivo, 288 in number (Merlet has added 40 more), from which we gather nearly all that we know of his life, are in the edition of Migne together with those of his correspondents. Many are of a special interest as to the political and religious questions of the time; not a few are answers to difficulties referring to moral, liturgical, or canonical matters; some discuss problems of dogmatics. The popularity of these letters was very great, as may be gathered from the fact that they appear in the catalogues of many monastic libraries; numerous manuscripts are still extant.
The twenty-five sermons are sometimes treatises on liturgical, dogmatic, or
moral questions and bear witness to the great piety and science of Bishop Ivo.
Micrologus which has been attributed to him belongs to Bernold of
Constance. Other works, such as the
Tripartita (collection of canons),
Commentary on the Psalms, etc., are still unprinted.
Influence of writings The influence of Ivo's works may be seen in the
writings of nearly all the theologians and canonists of his day and for some
time afterwards: Alger of Liege and Hugh of St. Victor, not to mention others,
depend largely on the materials put together in the
and Hugh has also borrowed from Ivo's sermons on Holy orders, dedication of
churches, etc. The connection of ideas between the
Prologus and the scheme of
Sic et Non or Gratian's
Concordantia is obvious. The saint's feast
is kept, since 1570, on 20 May; it is not known when he was canonized.
Ivo's works are found in P.L., CLXI, Decretum and Panormia: CLXII, Letters and Sermons in Mon. Germ. His.: Lites Imperatorum et Pontificum, II, 640-57; MERLET, Lettres de Saint Ives eveque de Chartres (1885); FOURNIER, Les collections canoniques attribuees a Yves de Chartres in Bibliotheque de l'Ecole des Chartres (1896 et 1897); IDEM, Yves de Chartres et le Droit canonique in Revuedes Questions Historiques (1898); Histoire litteraire de la France, X, 102-47.
Suchen bei amazon: Bücher über Catholic Encyclopedia - St. Ivo of Chartres
korrekt zitieren: Artikel
Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek verzeichnet das Ökumenische Heiligenlexikon in der Deutschen Nationalbibliografie; detaillierte bibliografische Daten sind im Internet über http://d-nb.info/1175439177 und http://d-nb.info/969828497 abrufbar.