St. Anselm of Lucca, the Younger
Born at Mantua c. 1036; d. in the same city, 18 March, 1086. He was nephew of
Anselm of Lucca, the Elder, who ascended the Papal throne as Alexander II in
1061. In the year 1071 Alexander II designated Anselm as Bishop of Lucca and
sent him to Germany to take investiture from Henry IV. Anselm went to Germany,
but was loath to receive the insignia of spiritual power from a temporal ruler
and returned without investiture. In 1073 Gregory VII, successor of Alexander II,
also appointed Anselm Bishop of Lucca, but advised him not to accept his ring
and crosier from Henry IV. For some reason, Anselm accepted investiture from
Henry, but soon felt such remorse that he resigned his bishopric and entered the
Order of St. Benedict at Padilirone, a monastery of the Cluniac Reform, situated
near Mantua. Gregory VII ordered him to return to his episcopal see at Lucca.
Anselm returned reluctantly, but continued to lead time life of a monk until his
death. Inspired, like Gregory VII, with a holy zeal to reform the clergy, he
wished to impose stricter discipline upon the canons of his cathedral. Most of
the canons refused to submit to Anselms regulations, and in 1081 he was expelled
from Lucca with the help of the Emperor and his antipope, Guibert. Anselm now
retired to the castle of the Countess Matilda of Tuscany, whose spiritual
adviser he was. Some time later he was made Papal Legate of Lombardy with
instructions to rule over all the dioceses which, during the conflict between
pope and emperor, had been left without bishops. Anselm was well versed in the
Scriptures and wrote some exegetical and ascetical works. In his work
Guibertum et sequaces ejus he shows the unlawfulness of lay-investiture and
defends Gregory against the Antipope Guibert. He also made a collection of
canons which afterwards were incorporated into the well-known
Gratian. Mantua, the city of his birth and death, honours him as its patron.
RANBECK, A Benedictine Calender (London, 1896); MONTALEMBERT, Les moines doceident (Paris, 1882), VI, 473 sqq.; GUERIN, Les petits Bollandistes (Paris), III, 498; LECHNER, Martyrologium des Benediktiner-Ordens (Augsburg, 1855).
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